Category Archives: SSL

Using a PFX formatted certificate on Cisco IOS

Rather than converting from pfx to pem format, why not just use a pfx?

With the way that pfx files are formatted, copying and pasting from a terminal is not possible, however if you can get the certificate transferred over FTP, it becomes much simpler :-)

The certificate has to have the full chain in it, and a passphrase.

conf t
ip ftp username <ftp username>
ip ftp password <ftp password>
copy ftp flash:

enter server name
enter source file name
enter destination file name

conf t
crypto pki trustpoint <trustpoint name>
fqdn <f.q.d.n>
subject-name cn=<f.q.d.n>
revocation-check crl
rsakeypair <trustpoint name>
crypto pki import <certificate.pfx> pkcs12 flash:<certificate> <passphrase>
wri mem

to show the certificate

show crypto pki trustpoints status

Installing ownCloud 5 on Ubuntu 12.04 with nginx and percona

Starting with a base install of Ubuntu 12.04 server, install the pre-reqs, these include the reqs for LDAP auth and external storage on a SMB server

sudo apt-get install nginx php5-fpm php5 php5-json php5-gd curl php5-curl\
 libcurl3-gnutls libapr1 libaprutil1 libcurl3 libaprutil1-ldap libcap2\
 libltdl-dev libltdl7 libtool m4 php-pear php-xml-parser php5-cli\
 php5-dev shtool ssl-cert php5-ldap smbclient

stop the nginx and php5-fpm services

sudo service nginx stop
sudo service php5-fpm stop

create a directory for owncloud to exist in

sudo mkdir -p /var/www

get the latest source for owncloud from


untar the source

tar -xvf owncloud

move the source into place

sudo mv owncloud /var/www/

create a data directory for the data

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/owncloud-data

remove the default nginx config from site-enabled

sudo unlink /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

create a new file for sites available, something like this

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/owncloud

link the file to sites-enabled

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/owncloud /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/owncloud

edit php-fpm to use a unix socket instead of a TCP socket

sudo nano /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

comment out

listen =

and add

listen = /var/run/php5-fpm.sock

Uncomment the permissions

listen.owner = www-data = www-data
listen.mode = 0660

For the SSL certificate, this might be of use

I usually use Percona instead of the Ubuntu build of MySQL

import the Percona gpg key

sudo gpg --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys 1C4CBDCDCD2EFD2A
sudo gpg -a --export CD2EFD2A | sudo apt-key add -

now edit sources.list

sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list

add these lines

# for percona
deb precise main
deb-src precise main

now install percona

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install percona-server-common-5.5 percona-server-server-5.5 libmysqlclient18 libmysqlclient16

with the database server installed, now create the database

mysql -uroot -p
CREATE USER 'owncloud'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON owncloud.* TO 'owncloud'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

add the components for mysql

sudo apt-get install php5-mysql libaprutil1-dbd-mysql

create the config file to use the mysql server

sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/config/autoconfig.php

add the following lines

$AUTOCONFIG = array(
  "dbtype"        => "mysql",
  "dbname"        => "owncloud",
  "dbuser"        => "owncloud",
  "dbpass"        => "password",
  "dbhost"        => "localhost",
  "dbtableprefix" => "",
  "adminlogin"    => "Administrator",
  "adminpass"     => "Admin-password",
  "directory"     => "/var/www/owncloud-data",

reset the directory permissions

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/owncloud
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/owncloud-data
sudo chmod 777 /var/www/owncloud-data/

You should now be able to start the services

sudo service php5-fpm start
sudo service nginx start

and login to the application using the username and password from autoconfig.php

Convert pfx to jks

Java keystores use the jks format, this is functionally similar to a pfx file in that you have a store and a password.

To convert from pfx to jks

keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore pfxkeystore.pfx -srcstoretype pkcs12 -destkeystore jkskeystore.jks -deststoretype JKS

Install a private root CA certificate for OpenSSL in Ubuntu 12.04

To install the root certificate into the openssl “certificate store” store it needs to be in pem (as opposed to DER) format

Copy the .pem format certificate into /etc/ssl/certs

in the directory /etc/ssl/certs run the below, where myca.pem is the root CA certificate in pem format.

ln -s myca.pem `openssl x509 -hash -noout -in myca.pem`.0

not that it is a ` not a ‘

any applications that use the openssl “certificate store” should now accept the root cert

Convert pfx to pem

Rather than use the certificate creation tools on Linux for web servers, I find it quicker and less error prone to create the certificate on Windows and then convert to pem format on the Linux server, this is particularly useful for internal certificates…

So, create the certificate on Windows and export it as a pfx file noting the password that you used

copy the pfx file onto the Linux box

create the pem

openssl pkcs12 -in certificate.pfx -clcerts -nokeys -out certificate.pem

create the key file

openssl pkcs12 -in certificate.pfx -nocerts -nodes -out certificatekeypass.key

to enable the key file to be used without entering a password (useful for a webserver…), remove the password

openssl rsa -in certificatekeypass.key -out certificatekey.key

you can now use the certificate.pem and certificatekey.pem in the web server configuration

To use crt files instead of pem files

export the certificate

openssl pkcs12 -in certificate.pfx -clcerts -nokeys -out certificate.crt

create the key file

openssl pkcs12 -in certificate.pfx -nocerts -nodes -out certificatekeypass.key

to enable the key file to be used without entering a password (useful for a webserver…), remove the password

openssl rsa -in certificatekeypass.key -out certificatekey.key